By William M. Lee, Roger Williams, Jean-Pierre Benhamou, Jacques Bernuau
Acute liver failure (ALF), or fulminant hepatic failure, is a special medical syndrome that crosses clinical disciplines. a comparatively infrequent , ALF is still a huge concentration of scientific and examine cognizance. With the arrival of transplantation, the significance of knowing administration of ALF has taken on a brand new urgency. during this first quantity devoted to ALF, the editors compile a uncommon crew of participants to explain the etiology, pathology and therapy of this significant syndrome. additionally coated are consensus options in liver transplantation for ALF sufferers, in addition to descriptions of man-made and bioartificial liver support units. a bit on destiny remedies contains hepatocyte transplantation, auxiliary grafts and different transitority liver help. striking for the excessive point of the authors' services, this complete quantity should still end up necessary.
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The significance of these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of disease is still not clear. At the very least, their occurrence may be of diagnostic value. Phenytoin may cause an allergic reaction in susceptible patients which is associated with fever, rash with exfoliative dermatitis, hepatotoxicity, lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia or a mononucleosis-like picture. The syndrome typically occurs several weeks after therapy is started and can present with a variety of symptoms (Shear and Spielberg 1988).
1994). 7 percent) of liver failure attributed to viral hepatitis between 1973 and 1993 were classified as non-A non-B hepatitis (Williams and Wendon 1994). 3, even after extensive assessment for HCV, HEV or "cryptic" HBV infection, the majority of such cases of fulminant or subfulminant non-ABCDE hepatitis remain as diagnostic enigmas. Even in Asia, where HCV or HEV account in different areas for 50 percent or more of cases of fatal acute non-ABCDE hepatitis, evidence of infection by the known hepatitis viruses cannot be found in a significant proportion of cases of acute liver failure (Nanda et al.
1994). It is thus unclear whether antiviral or even immunosuppressive therapies might be beneficial in these two forms of severe viral hepatitis. FULMINANT HEPATITIS ASSOCIATED WITH SYSTEMIC VIRAL INFECTIONS A number of viruses that typically cause extrahepatic disease 1. ve been implicated as rare causes of acute liver failure (Howard et al. 1984; Bernuau et al. 1986; Abzug and Levin 1991; Sobueetal. 1991). The majority of these cases of fulminant hepatic failure occur in the setting of disseminated disease and/or develop in immunocompromised hosts.