Surface Chemistry. Theory and Applications by J. J. Bikerman (Auth.)

By J. J. Bikerman (Auth.)

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When the molecular composition of a liquid changes with temperature, surface tension may—-within a range of temperatures—be constant or even increase on heating. An increase is observed in some silicate melts [115], for instance, in CaO 37, Si0 2 63 weight % between 1570° and 1630°, and in many lead silicates [114]. The vast majority of liquids has a 7 which monotonously decreases when temperature increases. Figure 27b shows this decrease for water between 5° and 35°. It is seen that the curve is almost a straight line.

Water, many alcohols, organic acids, fused salts and molten metals appear to have molecular weights which are too high and which in addition vary with temperature. These substances are—or have been—called anomalous. There are also substances known (for instance, dicetyl, tripalmitin and tristearin) for which equation (38) gives a molecular weight much below that corresponding to their chemical formula. If the molecular weights calculated from equation (38) are considered real, water, alcohols, metals and so on, are associated in the liquid state.

If two parallel plates are immersed vertically in a liquid which wets both, the rise of the liquid in the slit is easily calculated, provided the slit is narrow enough (Fig. 21). In this case the meniscus forms a very FIG. 21. Capillary attraction between two parallel plates, h is the height of the meniscus, and δ the distance between the plates. nearly cylindrical surface, of which one radius of curvature is infinitely large and the other is δ/2, δ being the distance between the plates. Equation (2) then gives the value 27/δ for the negative capillary pressure.

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